Examples from APA Publication Manual
2.01 Orderly Presentation of Ideas
Neither overuse nor underuse one type of punctuation, such as commas
or dashes (APA manual, 2001, p. 32).
2.02 Smoothness of Expression
A reading by a colleague may uncover problems. Put the
aside and read it later (possibly the next day).
2.03 Economy of Expression
Wordiness. Reason and because
often appear in the same sentence; they have the same meaning, and
they should not be used together (APA, 2001, p. 35).
Redundancy. The italicized words are
and should be omitted:
They were both alike
a total of 68 participants
has been previously found
small in size
in close proximity
period of time
the reason is because
INSTRUCTIONS: Fill in each blank using Hiragana so that the sentence will make sense.
INSTRUCTIONS: Using Hiragana, fill in each blank so that the sentence will make sense.
These data only provide a partial answer.
These data provide only a partial answer.
That versus which. Use that for
The animals that performed well in the first experiment were used in the second experiment (APA, p. 95).
While versus although. Use while to link events occurring simultaneously; use although, whereas, and, or but in place of while.
Bragg (1965) found that participants performed well, while Bohr (1969) found that participants did poorly.
Bragg (1965) found that participants performed well, whereas Bohr (1969) found that participants did poorly.
While these findings are unusual, they are not unique.
Although these findings are unusual, they are not unique.
Since versus because
Data for 2 participants were incomplete since these participants did not report for follow-up testing.
Data for 2 participants were incomplete because these participants did not report for follow-up testing (APA, 2001, p. 57).
Between and and
between 2.5-4.0 years of age
between 2.5 and 4.0 years of age
Both and and
The names were both difficult to pronounce and spell.
The names were both difficult to pronounce and to spell. (APA, p. 58)
• When you develop a clear writing style and use correct
you show concern not only for accurately presenting your knowledge and
ideas but also for easing the reader's task.
• Avoid words with surplus or unintended meaning (e.g., cop
police officer, kid for child), which may distract if not actually
3.06 Quotation Marks
• to introduce a word or phrase used as an ironic comment, as slang, or as an intended or coined expression. Use quotation marks the first time the word or phrase is used; thereafter, do not use quotation marks (APA, 2001, p.82).
......the "without-online" students appeared to be alert and to
faster than the "with-online" students. The without-online students
qualities such as willing to guess, not being inhibited, willing to
The author stated, "The effect disappeared within minutes" (Lopez, 1993, p. 311), but she did not say which effect.
Lopez (1993) found that "the effect disappeared within minutes" (p.
(APA, 2001, p. 85).
• to enclose the citation or page number of a direct quotation
(see APA, 2001, p. 120).
3.08 Brackets. Do not use brackets if the material can be set off easily with commas without confounding meaning.
(as Imai  later concluded)
(as Imai, 2003, later concluded)
Do not use a slash when a phrase would be clearer.
Each child handed the ball to her mother/guardian. (APA, p. 88)
Each child handed the ball to her mother or guardian.
• APA follows Webster's Collegiate in most cases.
Within a paragraph or sentence, identify elements in a series by lowercase letters (not italicized) in parentheses.
The participant's three choices were (a) working with another
(b) working with a team, and (c) working alone.
If the elements of a series within a paragraph constitute a compound sentence and are preceded by a colon, capitalize the first word of the first item.
The experiments on which we report were designed to address two such
findings: (a) Only a limited class of pattern stimuli, when paired with
color, subsequently contingently elicit aftereffects, and (b)
the correlation between grid and color does not degrade the McCollough
(APA, 2001, p. 116).
Prefixes That Do Not Require Prefixes That Require Hyphens
meta metacognitive meta meta-analysis
pre preexperimental pre pre-UCS trial
post postwar post post-1970
pro prowar pro pro-Freudian
re reevaluate re re-pair [pair again]
(APA, 2001, pp. 92-93)
Re: Reporting Scores
98.6 98.6 1.81 ?
97.63 0.28 .6
80 80 0.6 .88
80.1 80.1 0.1 .71
98.60 98.6 1.81
97.63 -- 0.28 .60
80.00 80.0 0.60 .88
80.10 80.1 0.10 .71
• If a cell cannot be filled because data were not
or are not reported, insert a dash-- in that cell.
• If the data are not applicable (N/A), leave the cell blank. (APA, 2001, p. 159)
3.71 Ruling of Tables
Typesetting requirements restrict the use of rules (i.e., lines) in a table. Limit the rules to those that are necessary for clarity, and use horizontal rather than vertical rules (APA, 2001, p. 173).
Number of Examinees by Gender and Language Background
English 24 61.54 25 53.19
Chinese 8 20.51 13 27.66
Vietnamese 2 5.13 4 8.51
Korean 3 7.69 1 2.13
Spanish 1 2.56 2 4.26
Indonesian 1 2.56 1 2.13
Thai 0 0.00 1 2.13
Total 39 99.99 47 100.01
Examples of references to periodicals
2. Journal article, two authors, journal paginated by issue
Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (2003). The ADA and the hiring
organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 1040-1049.
8. Newsletter article, no author
The new health-care lexicon. (2003, August/September).
Editor, 4, 1-2.
9. Daily newspaper article, no author
New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart
(2003, July 15). The Washington
Post, p. A12.
20. Non-English journal article, title translated into English
Shimazu, Y. M. (1998). EPILOGUE Aum kanbu o datsusenno shita
gakusha long interview:
Mind control shakai-sono hametsu no shinario [EPILOGUE: An interview; A brain-functionalist
who deprogrammed Aum's top leaders; A devastating scenario--mind control society].
Takarajima, 304, 224-271.
24. Books, group author (government agency) as publisher
The Tsukuba Group. (1992). Situational functional
volume 3: Notes (2nd ed.). Tokyo:
26. Books, no author or editor, no date
Japonica Kanji no renshu, shogaku 4-nen. (n.d.). Tokyo: Showa.
• Place the title in the author's
(APA, p. 249)
• Use n.d. (no date) when a publication date is not available. (APA, p. 273)
31. Non-English book
Plaget, J. & Inhelder, B. (1951). La genese de
de hasard chez I'enfant [The origin of the idea of
chance in the child]. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
• Cite the original: Give the original title and, in brackets,
the English translation (APA, p. 251).
34. Article or chapter in an edited book, two editors
Bjork, R. A. (2004). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive
in human memory. In H. L. Roediger
III & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Varieties of memory & consciousness (pp. 309-330). Hillsdale, NJ:
37. Non-English article or chapter in an edited book, titles translated into English
Shimazu, Y. M. (1978). Tenki no amerika to gengo kyoiku
[The US at a turning point in language
education]. In Shin eigo kyoiku (Vol. 109, pp. 39-40). Tokyo: Sanyusha.
39. English translation of an article or chapter in an edited book, volume in a multivolume work, republished work
Freud, S. (1961). The ego and the id. In J. Stanchey
& Trans.), The standard edition of the
complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19, pp. 3-66). London: Hogarth
Press. (Original work published 1923)
40. English translation of an article or chapter in an edited book, reprint from another source
• If the English translation of a non-English work is used as
the source, cite the English translation: Give
the English title without brackets (see p. 255).
42. Report available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
Osgood, D. W., & Wilson, J. K. (2004). Covariation of
health problems. Lincoln:
University of Nebraska. (NTIT No. PB 91-154 377/AS)
71. Internet articles based on a print source
Vanden Bos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2003). Role of
elements in the selection of resources by
psychology undergraduates. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123. Retrieved March 13,
2004, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre003331a.html
EPILOGUE. (1998). An interview: A
who deprogrammed Aum's top leaders; A
devastating scenario--mind control society. Takarajima, 304, 224-271. Retrieved January 1, 2009,
77. Stand-alone document, no author identified, no date
GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved March 13,
E-mail. Email sent from one individual to another should
be cited as a personal communication
(see section 3.102, APA, p. 214).
86. Message posted to online forum or discussion group
Simons, D. J. (2004, March 13). New resources for visual
cognition [Msg 31]. Message posted
To indicate seriation of separate paragraphs (e.g., itemized conclusions or successive steps in a procedure), number each paragraph with an arabic numeral, followed by a period but not enclosed in or followed by parentheses:
1. Begin with
paragraph indent. Type
second and succeeding
lines flush left.
2. The second item begins a new paragraph. (APA, 2001, p. 292)
Quotation marks and other punctuation. When a period or comma occurs with closing quotation marks, place the period or comma before the quotation marks. Put other punctuation (e.g., colon, semicolon) outside quotation marks unless it is part of the quoted material.
At the beginning of each trial, the experimenter said, "This is a new trial."
After the experimenter said, "This is a new trial," a new trial began.
Did the experimenter forget to say, "This is a new
(APA, 2001, p. 293)
American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Questions may be directed to firstname.lastname@example.org.
editor: Mozilla 1.7.13
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