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Online Teaching/Learning may not be as prudent as many educators and administrators think it is. One recent scientific study indicates statistically significant differences 3.77** (critical value of

…… online teaching/learning may be nothing more than an academic exercise. Technology can leverage faculty time, but it also can replace human contact. Other considerations for the instructor might be the following: How much time would it take to prepare and to maintain the online supplement material?

Table 2 Means, Standard Deviations,

w/o online w/

Comparison Group Experimental Group

(Fa97, Fa99, Fa01, Sp02) (Fa02, Sp03, Fa03, Sp04)

______________________ ______________________

Test n M SD n M SD

Q2 37 84.57 8.75 47 78.17 9.83 3.11** 82 -0.73

Q3 38 73.11 15.47 47 64.40 16.49 2.49* 83 -0.56

MT 39 86.39 6.36 47 80.51 7.82 3.77** 84 -0.92

The statistical significance of Group one and Group two is indicated by the t-value and the associated p-value. From the table you provided, the t-value for the comparison between Group one (M=86.39, SD=6.36, n=39) and Group two (M=80.51, SD=7.82, n=47) is 3.77 with df=84 and a p-value of **0.001.

Since the p-value is less than the conventional alpha level of 0.05, we can conclude that there is a statistically significant difference between the two groups.

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OK. then tell us the

The effect size of the t-value (3.77) for the comparison between Group one (n=39, M=86.39, SD=6.36) and Group two (n=47, M=80.51, SD=7.82) is -0.92. The effect size is calculated using Cohen's d, which is a measure of the standardized difference between the means of two groups. In this case, a negative effect size indicates that Group one had a higher mean than Group two, and the magnitude of the effect size suggests a large difference between the two groups. Specifically, a Cohen's d of -0.92 indicates that the mean of Group one was approximately 0.92 standard deviations higher than the mean of Group two.

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Tell us approx

Based on the information provided, we can see that the mean score for Group one (in-person class) is 86.39 with a standard deviation of 6.36, while the mean score for Group two (online class) is 80.51 with a standard deviation of 7.82.

The t-value for the independent samples t-test is 3.77 with 84 degrees of freedom. Using Cohen's d to calculate the effect size, we get a value of -0.92.

To estimate the percentage of students who performed higher in the in-person class, we need to define a cutoff point. Assuming that a difference of 2 points in the exam score is considered meaningful, we can calculate the percentage of students who scored 2 or more points higher in the in-person class.

To do this, we need to calculate the difference in means between the two groups divided by the pooled standard deviation:

d = (86.39 - 80.51) / sqrt(((39-1)(6.36)^2 + (47-1)(7.82)^2) / (39 + 47 - 2)) d = 5.88 / 1.54 d = 3.82

Using a standard normal distribution table or calculator, we can find that the proportion of students who performed

Details available at

https://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/y.shimazu/withOrWithoutOnline.html

https://works.bepress.com/y_shimazu/1

https://sjsunews.com/article/spartans-say-zoom-classes-lack-quality-

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